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HIPPODAMUS OF MILETUS PDF

In our blog you will find the information about Hippodamus of Miletus, his city plans and the famous cities established according to his plan. According to Aristotle, Hippodamus of Miletus directed the rebuilding of the Plato and Aristotle in the field of political theory, Hippodamus is an interesting. Hippodamus of Miletos (or Hippodamos, Greek: Ἱππόδαμος ο Μιλήσιος) ( BC — BC) was an ancient Greek architect, urban planner, physician.

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Stadtplanung im antiken Griechenland. The arrangement of private dwellings is considered to be more pleasant and more convenient for other purposes if it is regularly planned, both according to the newer and according to the Hippodamian manner; but for security in war [the arrangement is more useful if it is planned in] the opposite [manner], as it used to be in ancient times.

For that [arrangement] is difficult for foreign troops to enter and find their way about when attacking. A color version and a map of the region hippocamus Miletus. Hippodamus helped to design the new harbor town of Piraeuswhich served as a commercial port for Athens further inland. Hippodamus’ name is frequently associated with other orthogonally planned towns, such as OlynthusPrienemiletux Miletus.

His direct involvement in these cases remains unproven, but his name remains permanently associated with this type of plan that we call Hippodamian.

The catapult played a key role in making urban life in the fourth century B. During his first five years in power Alexander captured five major cities and many smaller ones.

Rational town planning, with straight streets intersecting to form quadrilateral city blocks, had off been popularized in Greece by the architect Hippodamus.

Aristotle objected that at least part of every city should preserve the haphazard arrangement of earlier times to make it more difficult for invaders lf fight their way in. Hippodamus arranged the buildings and the streets of Miletus around BC such that the winds from the mountains and the sea close to Miletus could flow optimal through the miletis and provide a cooling during the hot summer. In De architectura libri decem Vitruvius also mentions that in planning we have to consider the influence of the winds.

Hippodamus first applied to his home city the grid plan which he had developed on inspiration from geometrically designed settlements, and that later many cities were laid out according to this plan. Miletus, which is a fine example of the grid plan, comprises houses on blocks created by streets and side streets crossing at right angles, with public buildings in hippodaums city centre, This plan retained in the Hellenistic period, however in the Roman period it began to deteriorate gradually and inevitably.

The Greeks were the first to use solar architecture They oriented their houses to make use of the sun during winter, while obscuring its rays uippodamus summer and entire cities were built this way as early as BC.

Herzog the root of rational urban planning can be found also in the comedy of Aristophanes: The satire as complement to the utopia may confront us with rational management of space, money, work, sexual relationships. Aristotle Politics concerning political hippovamus social ideas of Hippodamus: Hippodamus, the son of Euryphon, a native of Miletus, the same who invented the art of planning cities, and who also laid out the Piraeus—a hippodamud man, whose fondness for distinction led him into a general eccentricity of life, which made some think him affected for he would wear flowing hair and expensive ornaments; but these were worn on a cheap but warm garment both in winter and summer ; he, besides aspiring to be an adept in the knowledge of nature, was the first person not a statesman who made inquiries about the best form of government.

The city of Hippodamus was composed of 10, citizens divided into three parts—one of artisans, one of milefus, and a third of armed defenders of the state. He also divided the land into three parts, one sacred, one public, the third private: He also divided laws into three classes, and no more, for he maintained that there are three subjects of lawsuits—insult, injury, and homicide.

He likewise instituted a single final court of appeal, to which all causes seeming to have been improperly decided might be referred; this court og formed of elders chosen for the purpose. He was further of opinion that the decisions of the courts ought not to be given by the use of a voting pebble, but that every one should have a tablet on miletud he might not only write a simple condemnation, or leave the tablet blank for a simple acquittal; but, if he partly acquitted and partly condemned, he was to distinguish accordingly.

To the existing law he objected that it hiplodamus the judges to be guilty of perjury, whichever way they voted.

hellenic period: Hippodamus of Miletus

He also enacted that those who discovered anything for the good of the state should be honored; and he provided that the children of citizens who died in battle should be maintained at the public expense, as if such an enactment had never been heard of before, yet it actually exists at Athens and in other places.

As to the magistrates, he would have them all elected by the people, that is, by the three classes already mentioned, and those who were elected were to watch over the interests of the public, of strangers, and of orphans.

These are the most striking points in the constitution of Hippodamus. There is not much else.

Hippodamus of Miletus

The first of these proposals to which objection may be taken is the threefold division of the citizens. The artisans, and the husbandmen, and the nippodamus, all have a share in the government. But the husbandmen have no mkletus, and the artisans neither arms kiletus land, and therefore they become all but slaves of the warrior class. That og should share in all the offices is an impossibility; for generals and guardians of the citizens, and nearly all the principal magistrates, must be taken from the class of those who carry arms.

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Yet, if the two other classes have no share in the government, how can they be loyal citizens? It may be said that those who have arms must necessarily be masters of both the other classes, but this is not so easily accomplished unless they are numerous; and if they are, why should the other classes share in the government at all, or have power to appoint magistrates?

Further, what use are farmers to the city? Artisans there must be, for these are wanted in every city, and they can live by their craft, as elsewhere; and the husbandmen too, if they really provided the warriors with food, might fairly have a share in the government.

But in the republic of Hippodamus they are supposed to have land of their own, which they cultivate for their private benefit. Again, as to this common land out of which the soldiers are maintained, if they are themselves to be the cultivators of it, the warrior class will be identical with the husbandmen, although the legislator intended to miletua a distinction between them. If, again, there are to be other cultivators distinct both from the husbandmen, who have land of their own, and from the warriors, they will make a fourth class, hippodzmus has no place in the state and no share in anything.

Or, if the same persons are to cultivate their own lands, and those of the public as well, they will have difficulty in supplying the quantity of mjletus which will maintain two households: There is surely a great confusion in all this. Neither is the law to commended which says that the judges, when a simple issue is laid before them, should distinguish in their judgement; for the judge is thus converted into an arbitrator.

Now, in an arbitration, although the arbitrators are many, they confer with one another about the decision, and therefore they can distinguish; but in courts of law this is impossible, and, indeed, most legislators take pains to prevent the judges from holding any communication with one another. Again, will there not be confusion if the judge thinks that damages should be given, but hppodamus so much as the suitor demands?

He asks, say, for twenty minae, and the judge allows him ten minae or in general the suitor asks for more and the judge allows lesswhile another judge allows five, another four minae. In this way they will go on splitting up the damages, and some will grant the whole and others nothing: Again, no one contends that he who votes for a simple acquittal or condemnation perjures himself, if the indictment has been laid in an unqualified form; and this is just, for the judge who acquits does not decide that the defendant owes nothing, but that he does not owe the twenty minae.

He only is guilty of perjury who thinks that the defendant ought not to pay twenty minae, and yet condemns him. To honor those who discover anything which is useful to the state is a proposal which has a specious sound, but cannot safely be enacted by law, for it may encourage informers, and perhaps even lead to political commotions.

This question involves another. It has been doubted whether it is or is not expedient to make any changes in the laws of a country, even if another law be better. Now, if an changes are inexpedient, we can hardly assent to the proposal of Hippodamus; for, under pretense of doing a public service, a man may introduce measures which are really destructive to the laws or to the constitution.

But, since we have touched upon this subject, perhaps we had better go a little into detail, for, as I was saying, there is a difference of opinion, and it may sometimes seem desirable to make changes.

Such changes in the other arts and sciences have certainly been beneficial; medicine, for example, and gymnastic, and every other art and craft have departed from traditional usage.

And, if politics be an art, change must be necessary in this as in any other art. That improvement has occurred is shown by the fact that old customs are exceedingly simple and barbarous. For the ancient Hellenes went about armed and bought their brides of each other.

In the magnificent and spacious Grecian city of Ephesus an ancient law was made by the ancestors of the inhabitants, hard indeed in its nature, but nevertheless equitable.

When an architect was entrusted with the execution of a public work, an estimate thereof being lodged in the hands of a magistrate, his property was held, as security, until the work was finished.

If, when finished, the expense did not exceed the estimate, he was complimented with decrees and honors. So when hi;podamus excess did not amount to more than a fourth part of the original estimate, it was defrayed by the public, and no punishment was inflicted.

But when more than one fourth of the estimate was exceeded, he was required to pay the excess out of his own pocket. Vitruvius On Budget Overruns. Another city planner was Deinocrates of Rhodes who worked as an architect for Alexander the Great. He also used a regular grid pattern for the city of Alexandria in Egypt. For fortified towns the following general principles are to be observed. First comes the choice of a very healthy site. Such a site will be high, neither misty nor frosty, and in a climate neither hot nor cold, but temperate; further, without marshes in the neighbourhood.

For when the morning breezes blow toward the town at sunrise, if they bring with them mists from marshes and, mingled with the mist, the poisonous breath of the creatures of the marshes to be wafted into the bodies of the inhabitants, they will make the site unhealthy.

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Again, if the town is on the coast with a southern or western exposure, it will not be healthy, because in summer the southern sky grows hot at sunrise and is fiery at noon, while a western exposure grows warm after sunrise, is hot at noon, and at evening all aglow. These variations in heat and the subsequent cooling off are harmful to the people living on such sites.

The same conclusion may be reached in the case of inanimate things. For instance, nobody draws the light for covered wine rooms from the south or west, but rather from the north, since that quarter is never subject to change but is always constant and unshifting. So it is with granaries: For heat is a universal solvent, melting out of things their power of resistance, and sucking away and removing their natural strength with its fiery exhalations so that they grow soft, and hence weak, under its glow.

We see this in the case of iron which, however hard it may naturally be, yet when heated thoroughly in a furnace fire can be easily worked into any kind of shape, and still, if cooled while it is soft and white hot, it hardens again with a mere dip into cold water and takes on its former quality. We may also recognize the truth of this from the fact that in summer the heat makes everybody weak, not only in unhealthy but even in healthy places, and that in winter even the most unhealthy districts are much healthier because they are given a solidity by the cooling off.

Similarly, persons removed from cold countries to hot cannot endure it but waste away; whereas those who pass from hot places to the cold regions of the north, not only do not suffer in health from the change of residence but even gain by it.

It appears, then, that in founding towns we must beware of districts from which hot winds can spread abroad over the inhabitants. For while all bodies are composed of the four elements, that is, of heat, moisture, the earthy, and air, yet there are mixtures according to natural temperament which make up the natures of all the different animals of the world, each after its kind.

Therefore, if one of these elements, heat, becomes predominant in any body whatsoever, it destroys and dissolves all the others with its violence. This defect may be due to violent heat from certain quarters of the sky, pouring into the open pores in too great proportion to admit of a mixture suited to the natural temperament of the body in question.

Again, if too much moisture enters the channels of a body, and thus introduces disproportion, the other elements, adulterated by the liquid, are impaired, and the virtues of the mixture dissolved. This defect, in turn, may arise from the cooling properties of moist winds and breezes blowing upon the body. In the same way, increase or diminution of the proportion of air or of the earthy which is natural to the body may enfeeble the other elements; the predominance of the earthy being due to overmuch food, that of air to a heavy atmosphere.

If one wishes a more accurate understanding of all this, he need only consider and observe the natures of birds, fishes, and land animals, and be will thus come to reflect upon distinctions of temperament. One form of mixture is proper to birds, another to fishes, and a far different form to land animals. Winged creatures have less of the earthy, less moisture, heat in moderation, air in large amount.

Being made up, therefore, of the lighter elements, they can more readily soar away into the air. Fish, with their aquatic nature, being moderately supplied with heat and made up in great part of air and the earthy, with as little of moisture as possible, can more easily exist in moisture for the very reason that they have less of it than of the other elements in their bodies; and so, when they are drawn to land, they leave life and water at the same moment.

Similarly, the land animals, being moderately supplied with the elements of air and beat, and having less of the earthy and a great deal of moisture, cannot long continue alive in the water, because their portion of moisture is already abundant.

Therefore, if all this is as we have explained, our reason showing us that the bodies of animals are made up of the elements, and these bodies, as we believe, giving way and breaking up as a result of excess or deficiency in this or that element, we cannot but believe that we must take great care to select a very temperate climate for the site of our city, since healthfulness is, as we have said, the first requisite.

I cannot too strongly insist upon the need of a return to the method of old times. Our ancestors, when about to build a town or an army post, sacrificed some of the cattle that were wont to feed on the site proposed and examined their livers. If the livers of the first victims were dark-coloured or abnormal, they sacrificed others, to see whether the fault was due to disease or their food.

They never began to build defensive works in a place until after they had made many such trials and satisfied themselves that good water and food had made the liver sound and firm. If they continued to find it abnormal, they argued from this that the food and water supply found in such a place would be just as unhealthy for man, and so they moved away and changed to another neighbourhood, healthfulness being their chief object.