Fascism, and National Socialism are not merely stitched together; on the contrary Ernst Nolte, Three Faces of Fascism: Action Frangaise, Italian Fascism, Na-. Three Faces of Fascism: Action Française, Italian Fascism, National Socialism. Ernst Nolte · Science and Society 31 (1) (). This paper is a critique of the final chapter of Ernst Nolte’s crucial text, Three Faces of Fascism. The goal in researching Nolte’s chapter discussing what he calls.
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Three Faces Of Fascism: Three different fqscism, in three different countries. One was a narrowly religious, fiercely reactionary journalist. One a former Marxist converted to a doctrine of personal power and national glory. One a failed artist and ex-Army corporal with grandiose visions and a flair for public speaking. At other times, all would have been considered harmless cranks.
Three Faces Of Fascism: Action Francaise, Italian Fascism, National Socialism by Ernst Nolte
But in a France split by the Dreyfus Case and then bled white by war This book is the story of that tragic era. Published first published To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Three Faces Of Fascismplease sign up. Be the first to ask a question about Three Faces Of Fascism.
Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Both the liberal and the Marxist approaches to the theory of fascism say that its origins are from the economic and social circumstances of the time. Here, Nolte focuses on ideology and its connected role between three movements: Fascism, to Nolte, is a metaphysical phenomenon, or a diffe Both the liberal and the Marxist approaches to the theory of fascism say that its origins are from the economic and social circumstances of the time.
Fascism, to Nolte, is a metaphysical phenomenon, or a different way of experiencing the world. It is ultimately an ‘anti-ideology’. It completely rejects the experience of the modern world. It is anti-Marxist in that it opposes Marxism, but uses similar political methods to gain power.
Nolte is convincing in his view that these ideologies are based upon fear, and that they promise the individual a means of ‘transcendence’ and avoiding their previous realities. This context of reaction forms a nice contrast with Arendt’s theory of totalitarianism. Maybe it’d be a good project to compare the two. Long before he became a central figure in the famed “Historikerstreit,” historian’s dispute about the significance of the Holocaust, Ernst Nolte was a controversial figure, challenging accepted notions of the National Socialist past in Germany, and exploring fascism’s meaning as an international phenomenon.
If this book seems dated now, it is because the influence it has had on historians and political scientists causes much of its argument to seem “obvious,” and because so many following in N Long before he became a central figure in the famed “Historikerstreit,” historian’s dispute about the significance of the Holocaust, Ernst Nolte was a controversial figure, challenging accepted notions of the National Socialist past in Germany, and exploring fascism’s meaning as an international phenomenon.
If this book seems dated now, it is because the influence it has had on historians and political scientists causes much of its argument to seem “obvious,” and because so many following in Nolte’s footsteps have pushed his case for a “generic” model of fascism so far in the intervening years. Students interested in discussions of generic fascism would be better to turn to more recent commentators such as Roger Griffin, A, James Gregor and Felix Carsten, while those interested specifically in French, Italian, or German models of fascism have an array of other authors to choose from.
Nolte is useful, however, in understanding how such concepts were framed, and in how they challenged the notion of the German “Sonderweg” special path by which a doomed nation supposedly marched toward ultimate evil from its very earliest history. Nolte is also notable for having introduced heretofore sheltered German historians to the philosophical roots of Mussolini and Maurras, who are covered in considerable primary-source depth.
This reader particularly benefited from the extensive quotes from Mussolini’s “Opera Omnia,” which trace his development from a rather advanced Marxist thinker to the first Fascist leader. May 15, Sam Schulman rated it it was amazing Shelves: An amazing book, little referenced, but immensely valuable. Many have heard of Ernst Nolte as having been naughty in the “Historians Debate” in the s and 90s, where his remarks have been interpreted as suggesting that Hitler was preferable to Stalin, or something worse.
I hate that game, and was glad when Furet rose in his defence, even doing a book together. Still, it was a shock to find that in this much earlier bookwritten for American college students, who would have been stupefi An amazing book, little referenced, but immensely valuable.
Still, it was a shock to find that in this much earlier bookwritten for American college students, who would have been stupefied by the recherche detail and depth of referenceNolte proposes a comparison between the two villains,says that some might think them to be comparable, but declares firmly that his opinion is that the Holocaust is a much worse crime than the horrors of Communism. But vaces a side issue. Here is a book by a late student of Heidegger which attempts to envision fascism in faintly Heideggerian terms with the difference between master and pupil that the master loved fascism and the pupil Nolte does not.
Each third of the book – on Maurras and Tree Francais, on Mussolini and on Hitler – ends with a discussion of transcendence that seems noltte – because I could undertand perfectly as I read it, and can’t in the least reproduce it in memory or remember anything of it except my own transient sense of complete comprehension.
But the book is not pervaded by this Heideggerian fog: Nolte thinks that Hitler added a Communist-hate and Jew-hate dimension to fascism that had been elements of the earlier movements, but as expressed in the Nazi regime, tree more expressions of Hitler’s individual madness than part of fascism itself.
Three Faces of Fascism: Action Française, Italian Fascism, National Socialism
I will add some detail from his observations when I get some time. Sep 25, Jan Peczkis rated it really liked it. Fascism is not the same as military dictatorship p. Nor is fascism simply the Far Right or extreme conservatism, as politicians of that stripe were often opponents of fascism p. Nolte defines fascism as follows: For instance, Mussolini had been a Communist as recently as p.
The position of Jews towards Italian fascism had, for some time, been an ambiguous one: Nolte provides much detail about the strongly anti-Christian character of fascism p. The core of the army consisted of his own legionaries, and even if Pilsudski himself never infringed on the multiplicity of parties and a fairly extensive freedom of expression of opinion, his successors took some forceful steps in the direction of an authoritarian, one-party dictatorship of soldier-statesmen.
In this, its first appearance, it was gascism not against Jews and not against Bolsheviks, but against the Polish intelligentsia. Holocaust-uniqueness advocates have argued that, noltte supposedly all Jews were slated for extermination, some Poles would be spared and converted into Germans.
In the case of the kidnapping of Polish children of good racial stock blonde, blue-eyedas in the Lebensborn program, their German ancestry was ipso facto assumed even in the absence of independent evidence.
The Nazis certainly did not regard the Poles as having any more inherent right to live than the Jews. In ffaces future German plans for the conquered Poles, Nolte writes: They have no claims of any kind, except an early death…In order to sell them contraceptive devices, Hitler jokes, one ought perhaps even to employ the Jews…Infantile meanderings? But in Poland they had become a reality in many vital initial points. And, against the claim that Hitler was uniquely obsessed with Jews, even at the time of his suicide, we learn the thtee Interestingly, Hitler had promoted vegetarianism p.
Quite a complex work! A prior refreshing of your philosophical knowledges especially authors like Marx, Kant, Nietzsche and Hegel would be necessary. As Enrst am facees that knowledgeable in philosophy, I sometimes faced terrible difficulties to follow up with Nolte’s argumentation! Nolte proposes to consider fascism as a trans-european phenomen Quite a complex work!
Nolte proposes to consider fascism as a trans-european phenomenon in its hegelian understanding stretching from the end of the First World War to the fall of National-Socialist Germany in Therefore, Nolte divides his work in three parts, which corresponding of a different evolutionary step of fascism in different contexts.
Action Francaise, unlike her italian and german counterparts, never reached the power, however emerged a few decades before them.
Nolte explains this through the fact, french society got confronted with the situation the defeat in the franco-prussian war ineconomic difficulties etc Germany would face at the end of the WW1. The second part deal with the italian fascism, which seals the birth of fascism. Even though italian fascism and action francaise might share many similiarities, they did not influence each others and were not in contact.
Unlike Maurras who came from a conservative, catholic background, Mussolini was politically educated in the socialist ranks. His political path will bring him always more on the right of the political spectrum, which will become a caracteristic of fascism: Depending on their needs, italian fascists will regularly switch their approaches from left to right and contrariwise.
Nolte ends this part concluding that Mussolini, while being certainly less intellectualized in comparison with Maurras and Hitlerhad the brightest and richest even though often contradictory intellectual background.
The third and last part deals with the german National-Socialism. Nolte considers it as the maturity of the fascist phenomenon enst also its end. Even though, Hitler never ceased to admire Mussolini, and thus until the very end, his thoughts demonstrated in fact more similarities with Ernwt from “Action Francaise”.
Nolte considers NS-Germany as the most radical version of fascism. This structure in three parts not only emphasize the evolution of fascism through time, but also in different context. Just as liberalism or communism, fascism took different forms in the different countries it came to power.
Those are the two axes of this work and I found Nolte’s argumentation quite convincing. After all, Nolte was first a philsoph before becoming historian and you could easily find economic approach in other authors works.
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