declaration Dominus Iesus inter-religious dialogue. John Paul II Joseph Ratzinger non-Christian religions deklaracija Dominus Iesus Jonas Paulius II Josephas. Keywords: tarpreliginis dialogas; nekrikščioniškosios religijos; Katalikų Bažnyčia; Jonas Pau-lius II; Josephas Ratzingeris; deklaracija Dominus Iesus;. The Guidelines of Declaration Dominus Iesus on Current Ecclesiological Problems Subjects: deklaracija Dominus Iesus; ekumenizmas; tarpreliginis dialogas.
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The Lord Jesus, before ascending into heaven, commanded his disciples to proclaim the Gospel to the whole world and to baptize all nations: Go therefore and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you.
The Church’s universal mission is born from the command of Jesus Christ and is fulfilled in the course of the centuries in the proclamation of the mystery of God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and the mystery of the incarnation of the Son, as saving event for all humanity.
The fundamental contents of the profession of the Christian faith are expressed thus: Through him all things were made. For us men and for our salvation, he came down from heaven: For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures; he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father.
He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father.
With the Father and the Son he is worshipped and glorified. He has spoken through the prophets. I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church.
I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. In the course of the centuries, the Church has proclaimed and witnessed with fidelity to the Gospel of Jesus. At the close of the second millennium, however, this mission is still far from complete.
This explains the Magisterium’s particular attention to giving reasons for and supporting the evangelizing mission of the Church, above all in connection with the religious traditions of the world. In considering the values which these religions witness to and offer humanity, with an open and positive approach, the Second Vatican Council’s Declaration on the relation of the Church to non-Christian religions states: In the practice of dialogue between the Christian faith and other religious traditions, as well as in seeking to understand its theoretical basis more deeply, new questions arise that need to be addressed through pursuing new paths of research, advancing proposals, and suggesting ways of acting that call for attentive discernment.
In this task, the present Declaration seeks to recall to Bishops, theologians, and all the Catholic faithful, certain indispensable elements of Christian doctrine, which may help theological reflection in developing solutions consistent with the contents of the faith and responsive to the pressing needs of contemporary culture. The expository language of the Declaration corresponds to its purpose, which is not to treat in a systematic manner the question of the unicity and salvific universality of the mystery of Jesus Christ and the Church, nor to propose solutions to questions that are matters of free theological debate, but rather to set forth again the doctrine of the Catholic faith in these areas, pointing out some fundamental questions that remain open to further development, and refuting specific positions that are erroneous or ambiguous.
For this reason, the Declaration takes up what has been taught in previous Magisterial documents, in order to reiterate certain truths that are part of the Church’s faith. The Church’s constant missionary proclamation is endangered today by relativistic theories which seek to justify religious pluralism, not only de facto but also de iure or in principle. As a consequence, it is held that certain truths have been superseded; for example, the definitive and complete character of the revelation of Jesus Christ, the nature of Christian faith as compared with that of belief in other religions, the inspired nature of the books of Sacred Scripture, the personal unity between the Eternal Word and Jesus of Nazareth, the unity of the economy of the Incarnate Word and the Holy Spirit, the unicity and salvific universality of the mystery of Jesus Christ, the universal salvific mediation of the Church, the inseparability — while recognizing the distinction — of the kingdom of God, the kingdom of Christ, and the Church, and the subsistence of the one Church of Christ in the Catholic Church.
The roots of these problems are to be found in certain presuppositions of both a philosophical and theological nature, which hinder the understanding and acceptance of the revealed truth. Some of these can be mentioned: On the basis of such presuppositions, which may evince different nuances, certain theological proposals are developed — at times presented as assertions, and at times as hypotheses — in which Christian revelation and the mystery of Jesus Christ and the Church lose their character of absolute truth and salvific universality, or at least shadows of doubt and uncertainty are cast upon them.
As a remedy for this relativistic mentality, which is becoming ever more common, it is necessary above all to reassert the definitive and complete character of the revelation of Jesus Christ.
Faithful to God’s word, the Second Vatican Council teaches: To see Jesus is to see his Father cf. For this reason, Jesus perfected revelation by fulfilling it through his whole work of making himself present and manifesting himself: The Christian dispensation, therefore, as the new and definitive covenant, will never pass away, and we now await no further new public revelation before the glorious manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ cf. Thus, the Encyclical Redemptoris missio calls the Church once again to the task of announcing the Gospel as the fullness of truth: He has revealed to mankind who he is.
This definitive self-revelation of God is the fundamental reason why the Church is missionary by her very nature. Therefore, the theory of the limited, incomplete, or imperfect character of the revelation of Jesus Christ, which would be complementary to that found in other religions, is contrary to the Church’s faith.
Such a position would claim to be based on the notion that the truth about God cannot be grasped and manifested in its globality and completeness by any historical religion, neither by Christianity nor by Jesus Christ. Such a position is in radical contradiction with the foregoing statements of Catholic faith according to which the full and complete revelation of the salvific mystery of God is given in Jesus Christ.
For this reason, they possess in themselves the definitiveness and completeness of the revelation of God’s salvific ways, even if the depth of the divine mystery in itself remains transcendent and inexhaustible. The truth about God is not abolished or reduced because it is spoken in human language; rather, it is unique, full, and complete, because he who speaks and acts is the Incarnate Son of God.
The obedience of faith implies acceptance of the truth of Christ’s revelation, guaranteed by God, who is Truth itself: This distinction is not always borne in mind in current theological reflection. Thus, theological faith the acceptance of the truth revealed by the One and Triune God is often identified with belief in other religions, which is religious experience still in search of the absolute truth and still lacking assent to God who reveals himself.
This is one of the reasons why the differences between Christianity and the other religions tend to be reduced at times to the point of disappearance.
The hypothesis of the inspired value of the sacred writings of other religions is also put forward. Certainly, it must be recognized domunus there are some elements in these texts which may be de facto instruments by which countless people throughout the centuries have been and still are able today to nourish and maintain their life-relationship with God.
The Church’s tradition, however, reserves the designation of inspired texts to the canonical books deklaacija the Old and New Testaments, since these are inspired by the Holy Spirit.
In contemporary theological reflection there often emerges an approach to Jesus of Nazareth that considers him a particular, finite, historical figure, who reveals the divine jesus in an exclusive way, but in a way complementary with other revelatory and salvific figures. The Infinite, the Absolute, the Ultimate Mystery of God would thus manifest itself to humanity in many ways and in many historical figures: Jesus of Nazareth would be one of these.
More concretely, for some, Jesus would be one of the many faces iesud the Logos has assumed in the course of time to communicate with humanity in a salvific way. Furthermore, to justify the universality of Christian salvation as well as the fact of religious pluralism, it has been proposed that there is an economy of the eternal Word that is valid also outside dominuz Church and is unrelated to her, in addition to an economy of the incarnate Word.
The first would have a greater universal value than the second, which is limited to Christians, though God’s presence would be more full in the second.
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These theses are in profound conflict with the Christian faith. The doctrine of faith must be firmly believed which proclaims that Jesus of Nazareth, son of Mary, and deklaracia alone, is the Son and the Word of the Father. Faithful to Sacred Scripture and refuting erroneous and reductive interpretations, the First Council of Nicaea solemnly defined its faith in: For us men and for our salvation, he came down and became incarnate, was made man, suffered, and rose again on the third day.
As an innocent lamb he merited life for us by his blood which he freely shed. In him God reconciled us to himself and to one another, freeing us from the dkminus of the deklaacija and of sin, so that each one of us could say with the apostle: In this regard, John Paul II has explicitly declared: Jesus is the Incarnate Word — a single and indivisible person Christ is none other than Jesus of Nazareth; he is the Word of God made man for the salvation of all It is likewise contrary to the Catholic faith to introduce a separation between the salvific action of the Word as such and that of the Word made man.
With the incarnation, all the salvific actions of the Word of God are always done in unity with the human nature that he has assumed for the salvation of all people. The one subject which operates in the two natures, human and divine, is the single person of the Word.
Similarly, the doctrine of faith regarding the unicity of the salvific economy willed by the One and Triune God must be firmly believed, at the source and centre of which is the mystery of the incarnation of the Word, mediator of divine grace on the level of creation and redemption cf. In fact, the mystery of Christ has its own intrinsic unity, which extends from the eternal choice in God to the parousia: The Church’s Magisterium, faithful to divine revelation, reasserts that Jesus Christ is the mediator and the universal redeemer: There are also those who propose the hypothesis of an economy of the Holy Spirit with a more universal breadth than that of the Incarnate Word, crucified and risen.
This position also is contrary to the Catholic faith, which, on the issus, considers the salvific incarnation of the Word as a trinitarian event. In the New Testament, the mystery of Jesus, the Incarnate Word, constitutes the place of the Holy Spirit’s presence as well as the principle of the Spirit’s effusion on humanity, not only in messianic times cf.
The Second Vatican Council has recalled to the consciousness of the Church’s faith this fundamental truth. In presenting the Father’s salvific plan for all humanity, the Council closely links the mystery of Christ from its very beginnings with that of the Spirit.
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Furthermore, the salvific action of Jesus Christ, with and through his Spirit, extends beyond the visible boundaries of the Church to all humanity. Speaking of the paschal mystery, in which Christ even now associates the believer to himself in a living manner in the Spirit and gives him the hope of resurrection, the Council states: Hence, the connection is clear between the salvific mystery of the Incarnate Word and that of the Spirit, who actualizes the salvific efficacy of the Son made man in the lives of all people, called by God to a single goal, both those who historically preceded the Word made man, and those who live after his coming in history: Thus, the recent Magisterium of the Church has firmly and clearly recalled the truth of a single divine economy: He is therefore not an alternative to Christ nor does he fill a sort of void which is sometimes suggested as existing between Christ and the Logos.
In conclusion, the action of the Spirit is not outside or parallel to the action of Christ. There is only one salvific economy of the One and Triune God, realized in the mystery of the incarnation, death, and resurrection of the Son of God, actualized with the cooperation of the Holy Spirit, and extended in its salvific value to all humanity and to the entire universe: The thesis which denies the unicity and salvific universality of the mystery of Jesus Christ is also put forward. Such a position has no biblical foundation.
In fact, the truth of Jesus Christ, Son of God, Lord and only Saviour, who through the event of his incarnation, death and resurrection has brought the history of salvation to fulfilment, and which has in him its fullness and centre, must be firmly believed as a constant element of the Church’s faith.
The New Testament attests to this fact with clarity: In his discourse before the Sanhedrin, Peter, in order to justify the healing of a man who was crippled from birth, which was done in the name of Jesus cf. Paul, addressing himself to the community of Corinth, writes: Furthermore, John the Apostle states: In the New Testament, the universal salvific will of God is closely connected to the sole mediation of Christ: It was in the awareness of the one universal gift of salvation offered by the Father through Jesus Christ in the Spirit cf.
This inheritance of faith has been recalled recently by the Dominud Magisterium: It must therefore be firmly believed as a truth of Catholic faith that the universal salvific will of the One and Triune God is offered and accomplished once for all in the mystery of the incarnation, death, and resurrection of the Son of God. Deklarzcija in mind this article of faith, theology today, in its reflection on the existence of other religious experiences and on their meaning in God’s salvific plan, is invited to explore if and in what way the historical figures and positive elements of these religions may fall within the divine plan of salvation.
In this undertaking, theological research has a vast field of work under the guidance of the Church’s Magisterium. The Second Vatican Council, in fact, has stated that: In reality, however, such language is simply being faithful to revelation, since it represents a development of the sources of the faith themselves.
From the beginning, the community of believers has recognized in Jesus a salvific value such that he alone, domihus Son of God made man, crucified and risen, by the mission received from the Father and in the power of the Holy Spirit, bestows revelation cf. In this sense, one can and must say that Jesus Christ has a significance and a value for the human race iesis its history, which are unique and singular, proper to him alone, exclusive, universal, and absolute.
Jesus is, in fact, the Word of God made man for the salvation of all. In xeklaracija this consciousness of faith, the Second Vatican Council teaches: