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farmacología básica introducción. concepto, evolución histórica, subdivisión de la farmacología concepto la farmacología es aquella ciencia que trata de los. T.4 Farmacologia. Course: Farmacologia ().p2hv{}.p2hv. stopoverlappingourstyleplease{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;bottom:0;width: px;padding Antibacterianos/farmacologia Bandagens Biguanidas/farmacologia Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem.

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The hyperglycemia may be the result of defects in insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity, or both. Two major forms of diabetes are recognized in the most recent classification scheme, which was developed by The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus, an international group, and has been adopted by both the American Diabetes Association and farmacilogia World Health Organization.

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Type 2 diabetes includes those cases that result from insulin resistance accompanied by a defect in insulin secretion. Gestational diabetes mellitus is a fourth type in this new classification system. Adaptado do site da Sociedade Brasileira de Diabetes 2. The cutoff points for the intermediate stage of hyperglycemia denoted by the terms impaired fasting glucose IFG and impaired glucose tolerance IGT have been adjusted to conform to the new diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus. Plasma Glucose Cutoff Points The most recent criteria for the diagnosis of diabetes include new plasma glucose cutoff points.

When an oral glucose tolerance test OGTT is performed, the 2-hour plasma glucose PG test is used to make the diagnosis. Three Methods The most recent diagnostic criteria for diabetes specify that the diagnosis may be made via one of three methods: To confirm the diagnosis, repeat testing on a subsequent day is required. Any method may be used for the repeat test. Prevalence rates rose with age, with a plateau after age 75 years.


The highest prevalence rates Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U. Slama et al, Lancetp Effects of Obesity and Diabetes Following a glucose challenge after overnight fasting, plasma insulin levels are dependent upon obesity as well as diabetes.

Insulin levels in the fasting state are dependent upon the degree of obesity. Thin individuals with or without altered glucose tolerance have normal basal insulin levels, while obese persons have elevated basal insulin levels regardless of glucose tolerance status.

After a glucose challenge, both thin and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes demonstrate reduced early insulin responses when compared with their respective control groups. However, obese individuals with type 2 diabetes have higher post-glucose insulin levels than do thin individuals with normal glucose tolerance, thus demonstrating the persistence of the effect of obesity on insulin secretion.

The significance of basal insulin levels bibuanidas the evaluation of the insulin biiguanidas to glucose in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Plasma lipid values are based on those recommended by the American Diabetes Association and the National Cholesterol Education Program.

Free Pharmacology Flashcards about Farmacologia I

Standards of medical care for patients with diabetes mellitus. Summary of the second report of the NCEP expert biguaniidas on the detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol.

Data from American Diabetes Association.

Basic Characteristics of the Sulfonylureas and the Meglitinides The insulin secretagogues, which include the sulfonylureas and the meglitinides, lower plasma glucose by augmenting insulin secretion by the pancreatic b-cells. These agents are thus effective only if functioning pancreatic b-cells are present. During treatment with the insulin secretagogues, a reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c by approximately 1.

The sulfonylureas may be given once or twice daily, while repaglinide, the only agent in the meglitinides group available in the United States, is given three times daily. Weight gain is the most notable side effect; allergy occurs rarely. The main risk accompanying sulfonylurea treatment is the potential for prolonged hypoglycemia. Medical Management of Type 2 Diabetes. American Diabetes Association; Basic Characteristics of Metformin Metformin, the sole available representative of the biguanide class in the United States, decreases hepatic glucose production.


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This agent works only in the presence of insulin, which may be of endogenous or exogenous origin. It reduces the plasma level of glycosylated hemoglobin HbA1c by 1. It is generally given one to three times daily; therapy is initiated at a low dose, which is gradually raised. biguanias

Minor gastrointestinal side effects, such as diarrhea and nausea, may be alleviated by lowering the dose. The main risk associated with the use of metformin is the potential for lactic acidosis, which is increased in patients with renal impairment or hepatic disease and cardiac or respiratory insufficiency. Bell P, Hadden D.

Efficacy of metformin in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. Mechanisms of Action The six classes of therapeutic agents used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus may be divided into three groups by their basic mechanism of action.

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