The assessment of language learners is having a growing impact in English language teaching and applied linguistics. A formal evaluation of students writing . “Writing is a key skill in second language learning and all teachers need to evaluate their students’ writing abilities. The issues surrounding the assessment of. Sara Cushing Weigle – Assessing – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf ), Text File .txt) or read book online.
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Topic knowledge is, of course, essential for writing, as one must have something to write about.
Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. Test of English as a Foreign Language One might also imagine some use for connative persuasive writing; for example, writing a letter of application for a job. Second, writers may not have adequate working memory to attend to both global and local errors.
In particular, practicality, or the amount of available resources, is a limiting factor, and requires prioritization among the other quali- ties Lyle Bachman, personal communication, As a result, the ability to speak and write a second language is becoming widely recognized as an important skill for educational, business, and personal reasons. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. Danny marked it as to-read Nov 13, Students thus have the advantage of knowing what that reader is likely to expect in terms of task demands, level of formality, content, and so on, and can shape their written text more appropriately to their perceptions of their instructors’ expectations.
It’s now up to us to decide what to do, and once we do we have enough information here to keep us quite busy. Or, to phrase it somewhat more negatively, a perceived lack of writing expertise is frequently seen as a sign that students do not possess the appropriate thinking and reasoning skills that they need to succeed.
Bereiter and Scardamalia Another influential model of writing is that of Bereiter and Scardamalia This issue is addressed again in Chapters 8 and 9.
Assessing Writing – Sara Cushing Weigle – Google Books
As was dis- cussed in Chapter 2, in some societies, personal writing may be highly valued, writlng in others, writing is used to pay homage to existing scholarship rather than to present one’s own point of view.
This factor will be discussed in detail in Chapter 2; for the present, we will simply note that one cannot write in a second lan- guage without knowing at least something about the grammar and vocabulary of that language.
Strategic competence is thus considered to sarw a general i. The task environment can be divided into the social The nature of writing ability 25 environment and the physical environment. Hayes’ model recognizes the important roles that motivation and affect play in writing.
While Kaplan’s original thesis has been subjected to a number of criticisms see Brown,and Leki,for summaries of weiting criticismsthe idea of contrastive rhetoric has recently re- gained respectability, as it has become clear to researchers that many aspects of writing are influenced by culture. Purpose, Process, and Practice Dana R. In this case, the test developers may decide assessong authenticity is less of a consideration than other aspects of usefulness such as reliability.
For example, Hayes cites research by Dweck and Palmquist and Young suggesting that cuhing beliefs about the causes of successful performance influence the amount of effort they are willing to exert: Writing is one of the central skills a student must master. Sep 10, Adam Sprague rated it liked it. She devotes an entire chapter to an approach to assessment – port- folio assessment – that is both controversial and widely used, not only for writing assessment, but also for large-scale assessment of educa- tional achievement.
As mentioned previously, the traditional role of writing in a language classroom, especially for those near or at the beginning of their language studies, is cusuing support and reinforce the learning of oral communication of knowledge about the structure and vocabulary of the language. Does this sound right? The role of reading in writing is dealt with later on in this chapter; in this section, I will summarize how recent scholars have conceptualized writing and speaking relationships.
First, writers may not be able to detect global problems because of poor reading skills. Leaving aside for the moment a precise definition of language proficiency, we use inferences about general language profi- ciency to make decisions such as admission to academic programs, placement into different levels of a language program, exemption from certain coursework, or selection for a particular job.
In addition to limited linguistic resources, second-language writers may be disadvantaged by social and cultural factors: Writing as performance assessment One way to bring Bachman and Palmer’s conceptualization of lan- guage use and language ability into clearer focus for writing assess- ment is to introduce the notion of performance csuhing.
Simi- larly, the role of affect in communication is important to consider in designing a test, not because we are interested in measuring affect, but because affect is involved in any language use situation and must therefore be accounted for.
One of the important insights brought out in the Hayes-Flower model is the fact that writing is a recursive and not a linear process: But while the history of writing assessment goes back for centuries, it continues to be one of the most problematic areas of language use to assess.
What tasks should be used? The first two groups – children being schooled in their second language – will need any or all of these writing types, depending on their level of schooling and the specific demands of the Introduction 11 Table 1.
Assessing Writing by Sara Cushing Weigle
Grabowski lists a number of con- The nature of writing ability 1 7 ditions under which writing tends to be chosen over speaking, noting that while the choice is frequently based on social or conventional norms, other factors such as the costs and benefits of one mode of communication vis-a-vis the other also play a role. While a variety of kinds of evidence can be used to demonstrate construct validity, perhaps the most common are the five discussed by Chapelle The notion of contrastive rhetoric was first introduced by Kaplanwho analyzed a large number of ESL essays and pointed out distinctive differences in the written discourse of students from different cultures, which he symbolized in clear, simple dia- grams.
Does it support my argument? English as a Second Language.
This book attempts to outline answers to these questions, and is organized in the following way. Investigating relationships between test scores and cudhing measures, frequently referred to as criterion-related validity evidence, involves calculating correlations between the test of interest and other measures of the same construct, such as another test or teacher chshing of student ability.
Along with these purposes, there is also con- sideration of the primary audience, either self or others. Pierrette marked it as to-read Apr 11,